Iteration patterns for Result & Option

Posted on Mon 10 April 2017 in Code

Towards the end of my previous post about for loops in Rust, I mentioned how those loops can often be expressed in a more declarative way. This alternative approach involves chaining methods of the Iterator trait to create specialized transformation pipelines:

let odds_squared: Vec<_> = (1..100)
    .filter(|x| x % 2 != 0)
    .map(|x| x * x)

Playground link

Code like this isn’t unique to Rust, of course. Similar patterns are prevalent in functional languages such as F#, and can also be found in Java (Streams), imperative .NET (LINQ), JavaScript (LoDash) and elsewhere.

This saying, Rust also has its fair share of unique iteration idioms. In this post, we’re going to explore those arising on the intersection of iterators and the most common Rust enums: Result and Option.


When working with iterators, we’re almost always interested in selecting elements that match some criterion or passing them through a transformation function. It’s not even uncommon to want both of those things, as demonstrated by the initial example in this post.

You can, of course, accomplish those two tasks independently: Rust’s filter and map methods work just fine for this purpose. But there exists an alternative, and in some cases it fits the problem amazingly well.

Meet filter_map. Here’s what the official docs have to say about it:

Creates an iterator that both filters and maps.

Well, duh.

On a more serious note, the common pattern that filter_map simplifies is unwrapping a series of Options. If you have a sequence of maybe-values, and you want to retain only those that are actually there, filter_map can do it in a single step:

// Get the sequence of all files matching a glob pattern via the glob crate.
let some_files = glob::glob("foo.*").unwrap().map(|x| x.unwrap());
// Retain only their extensions, e.g. ".txt" or ".md".
let file_extensions = some_files.filter_map(|p| p.extension());

The equivalent that doesn’t use filter_map would have to split the checking & unwrapping of Options into separate steps:

let file_extensions =|p| p.extension())
    .filter(|e| e.is_some()).map(|e| e.unwrap());

Because of this check & unwrap logic, filter_map can be useful even with a no-op predicate (.filter_map(|x| x)) if we already have the Option objects handy. Otherwise, it’s often very easy to obtain them, which is exactly the case for the Result type:

// Read all text lines from a file:
let lines: Vec<_> = BufReader::new(fs::File::open("file.ext")?)

With a simple .filter_map(Result::ok), like above, we can pass through a sequence of Results and yield only the “successful” values. I find this particular idiom to be extremely useful in practice, as long as you remember that Errors will be discarded by it1.

As a final note on filter_map, you need to keep in mind that regardless of how great it often is, not all combinations of filter and map should be replaced by it. When deciding whether it’s appropriate in your case, it is helpful to consider the equivalence of these two expressions:

iter.filter_map(|x| if f(x) { Some(m(x)) } else { None })

Simply put, if you find yourself writing conditions like this inside filter_map, you’re probably better off with two separate processing steps.


Let’s go back to the last example with a sequence of Results. Since the final sequence won’t include any Erroneous values, you may be wondering if there is a way to preserve them.

In more formal terms, the question is about turning a vector of results (Vec<Result<T, E>>) into a result with a vector (Result<Vec<T>, E>). We’d like for this aggregated result to only be Ok if all original results were Ok. Otherwise, we should just get the first Error.

Believe it or not, but this is probably the most common Rust problem!2

Of course, that doesn’t necessarily mean the problem is particularly hard. Possible solutions exist in both an iterator version:

let result = results.into_iter().fold(Ok(vec![]), |mut v, r| match r {
    Ok(x) => { v.as_mut().map(|v| v.push(x)); v },
    Err(e) => Err(e),

and in a loop form:

let mut result = Ok(vec![]);
for r in results {
    match r {
        Ok(x) => result.as_mut().map(|v| v.push(x)),
        Err(e) => { result = Err(e); break; },

but I suspect not many people would call them clear and readable, let alone pretty3.

Fortunately, you don’t need to pollute your codebase with any of those workarounds. Rust offers an out-of-the-box solution which solves this particular problem, and its only flaw is one that I hope to address through this very post.

So, here it goes:

let result: Result<Vec<_>, _> = results.collect();

Yep, that’s all of it.

The background story is that Result<Vec<T>, E> simply “knows” how to construct itself from a sequence of Results. Unfortunately, this API is hidden behind Rust’s iterator abstraction, and specifically the fact that Result implements FromIterator in this particular manner. The way the documentation page for Result is structured, however — with trait implementations at the very end — ensures this useful fact remains virtually undiscoverable.

Because let’s be honest: no one scrolls that far.

Incidentally, Option offers analogous functionally: a sequence of Option<T> can be collected into Option<Vec<T>>, which will be None if any of the input elements were. As you may suspect, this fact is equally hard to find in the relevant docs.

But the good news is: you know about all this now! :) And perhaps thanks to this post, those handy tricks become a little better in a wider Rust community.


The last technique I wanted to present here follows naturally from the other idioms that apply to Results. Instead of extracting just the Ok values with flat_map, or keeping only the first error through collect, we will now learn how to retain all the errors and all the values, both neatly separated.

The partition method, as this is what the section is about, is essentially a more powerful variant of filter. While the latter only returns items that do match a predicate, partition will also give us the ones which don’t.

Using it to slice an iterable of Results is straightforward:

let (oks, fails): (Vec<_>, Vec<_>) = results.partition(Result::is_ok);

The only thing that remains cumbersome is the fact that both parts of the resulting tuple still contain just Results. Ideally, we would like them to be already unwrapped into values and errors, but unfortunately we need to do this ourselves:

let values: Vec<_> = oks.into_iter().map(Result::unwrap).collect();
let errors: Vec<_> = fails.into_iter().map(Result::unwrap_err).collect();

As an alternative, the partition_map method from the itertools crate can accomplish the same thing in a single step, albeit a more verbose one.

  1. A symmetrical technique is to use .filter_map(Result::err) to get just the Error objects, but that’s probably much less useful as it drops all the successful values. 

  2. Based on my completely unsystematic and anecdotal observations, someone asks about this on the #rust-beginners IRC approximately every other day

  3. The fold variant is also rife with type inference traps, often requiring explicit type annotations, a “no-op” Err arm in match, or both.